Research


The organisation has conducted more than 30 research projects including perception surveys, baseline studies, needs assessment surveys etc. across Pakistan’s four provinces: Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh, and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
The baseline surveys have been conducted for the public as well as private sector, including the FATA Development Authority (FDA), Multi-Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) etc.
CAMP has a pool of around 160 educated enumerators who are time to time involved in CAMP’s surveys. CAMP has a well-equipped and experienced research cell which has been operational since 2005 and has produced more than 30 quality surveys, assessments, and research studies. The following gives a brief description of CAMP’s key research studies:

01. Women and the FATA Conflict: Unfulfilled Promises

This research report presents the perspectives of a sampled group of women who have been displaced by the conflict in the Federally Administered Tribal Area – how their lives have changed as a result of displacement, and their hopes for the future. The women’s accounts are supported by the views of those who have been assisting them through various programmes and through advocacy for improved services and increased funding.
The report is based on desk review, qualitative information gathered through focus group discussions with women living in camp and off-camp areas; and key informant interviews with government officials, UN agencies’ and NGO staff. The report makes recommendations to the Government, donors and the UN, and national and international NGOs.

 02. Understanding the Informal Justice System: Opportunities and Possibilities for Legal Pluralism in Pakistan (2015)

Based on the experience from previous studies under CAMP’s Rule of Law Programme in Pakistan project and demand generated through various advocacy events in Pakistan, CAMP undertook a mapping study of various forms of informal justice systems in Punjab, Sindh and Baloch areas of Balochistan. Various government and non-governmental organisations have conducted research studies in the past. However, the data is either outdated and secondary or qualitative in nature and provides limited insight on the subject.
Besides collecting a sample of 2,700 respondents from 12 districts in three provinces, the study includes extensive desk reviews and qualitative data from roundtables and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) that provide insight and knowledge on the research topic. The research may be used as a reference for policy makers (public and private), academia, media, think tanks, and other entities, and for programming and formulation of policies addressing the root causes of violence and access to justice issues in Pakistan.

03. Honour Crimes in Pakistan: Unveiling Reality and Perception

CAMP compiled a comprehensive national level research by mapping the perceptions of local stakeholders on different forms of honour crimes and the role of informal justice systems in addressing these crimes in Pakistan through qualitative and quantitative data utilising various research tools. A desk review of available literature, a perception survey of 3,200 respondents, and consultations with stakeholders were organised in the form of a research report titled “Honour Crimes in Pakistan: Unveiling Reality and Perception”. The report was published and made public through a national launch in Islamabad, in March 2014.

04. Understanding Justice Systems of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, FATA and Balochistan: The Pakhtun Perspective

In 2012, CAMP’s study on the above was based on a perception survey of 2400 respondents [men and women] in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. Focus group discussions with 24 groups of men and women in 12 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan (eight and four groups respectively), and more than 100 interviews with Key Informants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan were undertaken with various stakeholders. The final report was launched in 2013.
The research study conducted under this component provides a comprehensive analysis of the Pakhtun people’s perception about justice systems in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, FATA and Balochistan. Since very little research has been done so far on Jirga, therefore, this study added to CAMP’s previous work on the Jirga system ‘ Understanding Jirga: Legality and Legitimacy in
Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas’ and would serve as a guide as well as a reference document on Jirga for both national and international audience. This research study titled, ‘Understanding Justice Systems in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and FATA: The Pakhtun Perspective’, contains a detailed analysis of the perception of the local population and their understanding of the justice systems (formal and informal) in their region with regard to their compliance to international human rights standards and the Fundamental Rights protected by the Constitution of Pakistan.

05. Media Usage in Selected Areas of KP

CAMP and its sister organisation, Regional Research Policy Institute (RRPC), signed a contract with Internews Network, an international media agency, in late September 2012 to conduct a survey on audience media usage in selected areas of KP. Internews works to support conditions for stability and development in conflict-prone and other priority areas of Pakistan through the “Supporting Progressive Media Voices in Pakistan” program.
The research for this project included designing and implementing a project on people’s information needs, media consumption in KP (Mardan, Peshawar and Charsadda) to provide reliable information on how people obtain information about local issues and events in the coverage areas of Radio Khyber, Radio Pakhtunkhwa Mardan and Radio Pakhtunkhwa Peshawar. The research also took into account what media sources people use to obtain information, what specific radio programmes are most popular for getting information, how listeners use and act on information, the credibility of electronic media sources, the credibility of government media, respondent information needs relative to government activities, issues and events, listener patterns and needs disaggregated by gender and age, respondent information needs relative to social issues and daily life, the quality and availability of radio programming, etc.

06. Data Collection for Baseline Development Indicators in Selected Districts and Agencies of KP & FATA 

Funded by World Bank (Multi Donor Trust Fund – MDTF), the assessment aimed to collect primary data (qualitative and quantitative), and secondary data for Baseline Indicators from the conflict areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
To support the process, CAMP conducted a General Population Survey, Youth Survey and Survey of Private Firms and NGOs at the community level; using various methodologies. CAMP also gathered information from various government departments to identify the gaps in the existing system and services so as to serve as a tool to assess the following areas as specified in the World Bank (Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF) Operationalization of the PCNA document, which primarily focuses on:

  • Improving local services and communities support
  • Growth and job creation
  • Policy Reforms and Governance Support
07. Third Party Result Reporting (TPRR) for Three MDTF Funded Projects

In line with the Multi Donor Trust Fund (MDTF’s) support for the Post Crisis Needs Assessment
(PCNA’s) reconstruction and development strategy, the MDTF mobilized Third Party for Result Reporting (TPRR), so as to verify and report on the results generated till date and carry out rapid evaluations of specifically three MDTF funded projects under implementation in FATA and KP; The projects are: i) KP Emergency Roads Recovery Project (ERRP); ii) Economic Revitalization (ERKF) for KP and FATA; and, iii) the Governance Support Programme (GSP) for KP and FATA.
In lieu of this assignment, CAMP signed a contract with the World Bank in July 2012, with the work commencing in August to verify and report on the results generated to date and carried out rapid evaluations of the above three MDTF-funded projects

08. Understanding Jirga: Legality and Legitimacy in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas

With financial support from the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, and technical assistance from the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law in Heidelberg, Germany, CAMP had initiated a seven-month research project titled ‘Rule of Law Programming in Pakistan’ in August 2010. Based on the recommendations of the preliminary research namely; Understanding Jirga: Legality and Legitimacy in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Legal Environment in Pakistan for Registered Afghans,
CAMP initiated the second phase of the project in May 2011, which comprised of a capacity building programme for key stakeholders, including Jirga members and tribal youth. Simultaneously, the project aimed to raise awareness and advocate reforms in the tribal Jirga system and developed a comprehensive training manual on ‘Reforming Jirga’, in
English and Urdu languages. Based on this manual, 11 three-day training workshops were held for Jirgamaars/elders/members of the Jirga, traditional Qazis, tribal youth and women from FATA and in total, 393 people including 38 women from FATA were trained.

09. Inter-Agency Early Recovery Needs Assessment in FATA

In 2011, UNDP awarded this project to CAMP which involved a thorough review of the actual model of service delivery for IDPs and their families used by Ministry entities, UNDP-related organisations and other charitable or non-profit organisations from the regional and Agency level, down to community-based or similar self-help organisations that were in action in the three target agencies of FATA.

10. Understanding  FATA:  Attitudes  towards  Governance,  Society  &  Religion  in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Volumes I to V

CAMP has, till date, produced five volumes of ‘Understanding FATA: Attitudes towards Governance, Society and Religion in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas”. CAMP started gathering qualitative and quantitative data since 2007 with financial support from the British High Commission. This research study was an attempt to understand the problems in FATA, especially in light of the prevalent conflict and how its people have been affected by it. All volumes have received a tremendously encouraging response from all quarters since they all have been successfully circulated among stakeholders, both to national and international audiences.

11. Analysis of Jirga in Malakand division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

In collaboration with Safeworld (UK-based NGO), CAMP conducted a study on Jirga in Malakand which aimed to identify gaps and analyse the role that this tribal justice mechanism plays in reconciling waring communities and groups in Malakand division and to provide recommendations on making jirga more accessible to all vulnerable groups, including women, and minorities. The study was financed by European Union under its ‘Instrument for Instability’ section.

12. Assessing the Legal Environment for Registered Afghans in Pakistan

CAMP presented its report on the legal status and environment in Pakistan for registered Afghans living in the country in Islamabad on 27th January, 2012. This report was also part of the Rule of Law Programming in Pakistan (Phases I & II), sponsored by the German Federal Foreign Office with legal and technical support from the Max Planck Institute of International Law and Public Law, Heidelberg, Germany. The report is based on a survey of 1500 registered Afghan citizens living in KP who were asked, amongst other things, about how they approached the Pakistani legal system, knowledge of their rights, and other things, in an attempt to highlight their legal status and rights in the absence of governing ‘Refugee’ legislation and how domestic laws affect their legal rights as non-citizens living in Pakistan.

13. Understanding Jirga: Legality & Legitimacy in Pakistan’s Tribal Areas

“Understanding Jirga: Legality and Legitimacy in Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas” – the report details a written record of interviews with 1500 common men and women of FATA – those who live under the umbrella of tribal justice. The report also contains a dispassionate analysis of the Tribal legal code and its ultimate manifestation – the Jirga – as an attempt to accurately weigh associated pros and cons. The project was sponsored by the German Federal Foreign Office with technical support provided by the Max Planck Institute of International law and Public Law, Heidelberg, Germany.

14. Pakistan Grievances Matrix (FATA Opinion Poll 2010)

The New America Foundation funded a three month project to conduct an opinion poll among FATA residents on various issues including politics, governance, religion and social concerns. The survey was conducted in all seven agencies of FATA, where 1200 people were interviewed including 200 Maliks. The project started in May 2010 and ended in July 2010.

15. Feasibility Study of Regulatory Regime for Industry, Commerce & Trade in FATA

FATA Development Authority approved CAMP’s bid for the above-mentioned project, which aimed at developing a comprehensive study with recommendations and infrastructure as to how the regulatory regime could be extended to FATA for Industry, Commerce and Trade. The project duration was for 8 months.

16. Employment Opportunities Baseline Survey – FR Bannu & FR DI Khan, FATA

The one month survey yielded the information about over nearly 30,000 educated youth (13-30) in the survey universe, their levels of literacy/qualification, any employment experience and their willingness to be trained/educated in various disciplines. The survey also collected information about the illiterate population over the age of 30.

17. Livelihood Baseline Survey in FATA

The FATA Secretariat conducted a Livelihood Baseline Survey to get a better understanding of the socio-economic living conditions of the people living in FATA. CAMP supported this initiative by conducting the socio-economic baseline survey in 50 villages of Jamrud tehsil, Khyber Agency.
Apart from household interviews, CAMP also interviewed village spokesmen (Maliks and other elders). The aim of this baseline survey was to deliver required high quality data on the socio-economic situation of villages in the area; information gained is important for the design and planning of new projects as well as the monitoring and evaluation of already implemented project activities. CAMP contributed to the survey design and methodology, as well as the training of a team of enumerators. The Project started in November 2009 for a duration of 8 months.

18. Survey/Enumerations of Existing Industries, Service Sector Entities, and Labour Force & Identifying Constraints in FATA

This survey collected data about existing service Industries, Service Sector entities, & Labour force & Identifying constraints in all seven agencies and six FRs on the identified parameters in the guidelines and TORs shared by the FATA Development Authority (FDA).

19. Charney Research FATA Opinion Polls 2008-09

Charney Research FATA Opinion Polls 2008-09 Charney Research, a New York based research institution, awarded a survey to CAMP to interview 500 respondents in 7 Agencies of FATA on religion, governance, politics and terrorism. The survey was completed in February 2009.

20. Data Collection of Government owned Middle and High Schools in FATA

CAMP collected data in government owned middle and high schools (girls and boys), through 4 different structured questionnaires, in Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber and Kurram agencies of FATA of Pakistan for ED Links. ED Links is a USAID funded project.

21. Radio Spot Pre-testing in FATA

This study aimed to pre-test ten radio spots geared towards parents of children under age five in FATA, under the program’s hygiene promotion behaviour change communication campaign. The survey was conducted in Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies of FATA and was contracted by Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project (PSDW – HPP), a USAID funded project. The project was managed by AED.

22. Socio-Economic Survey of Landmine Survivors in FATA

In addition to the 4.9 percent of naturally occurring and accidental disabilities in Pakistan (Human Development Centre Report 1999), landmines are yet another problem, which is continuously adding to the number of casualties. Landmines not only cause disabilities but also have long term multiple negative impacts on the families as well as on the society. In a society riddled with taboos relating to disability, they tend to become a burden on their families and society and an alarming number of them end up on the streets, begging for survival. To respond to the needs of the landmine survivors in a more pragmatic way, CAMP undertook a comprehensive socio-economic survey of landmine survivors in the tribal areas of Pakistan bordering Afghanistan. The survey was sponsored by IDEALS, a UK based charitable organisation.

23. Analysis of Afghan Refugees’ Sources of Information in Pakistani Camps and Settlements

Another splendid opportunity of investigation was provided by the British High Commission, Islamabad. This research study helped to unveil some very interesting facts about Afghan refugees and their way of life in designated refugee camps and settled areas of Pakistan. The scope of the study included a full demographic profile, ethnic and sub-ethnic data, as well as data on sex, age groups, income, and sources of information. The study included the entire population of Afghan refugees residing in urban and rural camps and settlements in the vicinity of KP and Balochistan.

24. Assessment of Government owned Primary Schools (Boys & Girls) in Mohmand and Khyber Agencies of FATA

In 2005 and 2007, CAMP successfully implemented projects in the education sector with an imperative guiding principle that education sector problems can be lessened with the rehabilitation and improvement in the existing educational physical infrastructure. The projects provided a comprehensive assessment on the condition of schools in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). During these surveys, 50 schools in Mohmand Agency and 59 in Khyber Agency were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. The survey was a part of schools’ rehabilitation program funded by Canadian Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) of CIDA.

25. Opinion Survey on Arms Trade Treaty in Pakistan

In 2007, CAMP conducted an opinion survey in Pakistan to approach the general perceptions of the people pertaining to the situation of small arms and security in the country. The opinion survey was carried out in four cities representing the four provinces, i.e. Peshawar, Lahore, Karachi and Quetta. A hundred respondents each were interviewed in these cities. The survey was awarded by International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), a UK based international network.

26. Opinion Survey of Security in Peshawar, (Former North West Frontier Province)

In 2005, CAMP conducted a limited scope opinion survey in Peshawar on the security situation. Around 100 respondents were interviewed. The survey was sponsored by Saferworld, a UK based NGO.

27. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) in FATA

To gain an in-depth analysis of various issues confronted by the people of FATA, CAMP also conducted FGDs by involving tribal elders, Maliks, civil society members, educated youth and ordinary people in the dialogue process. This provided CAMP with more in-depth knowledge about the local problems and helped in identifying indigenous ways for rectifying those problems in a cost effective way. FGDs are mostly part of various donors funded projects.

28. Research Study on the Institutionalisation of Community Organisations in Districts of Upper & Lower Dir, Malakand

In March 2005, CAMP conducted a three-month comprehensive study titled “Institutionalisation of Community Organisations” for Dir Area Support Project (DASP), a joint project of the KP government and UNIFAD. The purpose of the study was to assess the Community Development Section of DASP so as to formulate a Strategic Framework, a Phasing-out Plan so that the local community could take the ownership of the project, and to design a Future Plan of Action for the apex community body.

29. Landmine Monitor Reports 2005-2012

Landmine Monitor Report is the unprecedented project of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), the co-winner of 1997 Nobel Peace Laureate to date in Pakistan. CAMP became the Primary Landmine Monitor Researcher for ICBL’s Pakistan chapter since 2005 and has been providing annual research reports to Landmine Monitor. The research was spread over FATA, KP, Kashmir and Balochistan. CAMP conducted field research as well as kept a regular update on key developments at policy level, developed a landmine casualty database, area specific problem analysis, documented government responses to the landmine victims/survivors, government disability policies, mine action, mine risk education, and survivors’ assistance, etc.

30. Situational Analysis of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) & Impact on Security

According to some estimates, there are 18 million small arms in Pakistan, circulating informally in civilian hands. As the national campaigner against the use of small arms, CAMP published, in February 2005, a comprehensive research report on small arms titled “Situation Analysis of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and its Impact on Security”. The research report consisted of primary and secondary data. This research was sponsored by regional South Asia Small Arms Network (SASA-Net) and Safer World UK.